Historically, a civilization was a so-called "advanced" culture in contrast to more supposedly primitive cultures. In this broad sense, a civilization contrasts with non-centralized tribal societies, including the cultures of nomadic pastoralists or hunter-gatherers. As an uncountable noun, civilization also refers to the process of a society developing into a centralized, urbanized, stratified structure.
Sid Meier's Civilization is a turn-based "4X"-type strategy video game created by Sid Meier and Bruce Shelley for MicroProse in 1991. The game's objective is to "Build an empire to stand the test of time": it begins in 4000 BC and the players attempt to expand and develop their empires through the ages from the ancient era until modern and near-future times. It is also known simply as Civilization, Civilization I, or abbreviated to Civ or Civ I.
Civilization is a turn-based single- or multiplayer strategy game. The player takes on the role of the ruler of a civilization, starting with one (or occasionally two) settler units, and attempts to build an empire in competition with two to six other civilizations. The game requires a fair amount of micromanagement (although less than any of the simulation games). Along with the larger tasks of exploration, warfare and diplomacy, the player has to make decisions about where to build new cities, which improvements or units to build in each city, which advances in knowledge should be sought (and at what rate), and how to transform the land surrounding the cities for maximum benefit. From time to time the player's towns may be harassed by barbarians, units with no specific nationality and no named leader. These threats only come from unclaimed land or sea, so that over time there are fewer and fewer places from which barbarians will emanate.
The BBC remastered the original films onto HD in 2011. The series was re-broadcast on the BBC HD channel from 9 February to 4 May 2011, and shortly after was released on Blu-Ray. In 2014 the BBC announced that it intended to make a new version of the series, sparking some debate as the best approach to take.
Civilisation was one of the first United Kingdom television documentary series made in colour, commissioned during David Attenborough's controllership of BBC2. For technical reasons, colour television was to come to BBC2 before BBC1 and, as a channel aimed at a more highbrow audience, it was appropriate to commission a major series about the arts. It was Attenborough who prompted the title, but because of time constraints the series only covered Western Civilisation. Clark did not "suppose that anyone could be so obtuse as to think I had forgotten about the great civilisations of the pre-Christian era and the east", though the title continued to worry him.
“Once we were told that Zimbabwe was too ‘civilised’ to have been built by Africans; now when the scholars have proved that it was built by Africans, we are told that it is only a ruin anyway!” ... for a hierarchy built on the idea that Europeans were the only source of civilisation.
Namibian PresidentHage Geingob welcomed the “historic” move, but Herero paramount chief Vekuii Rukoro dismissed a deal agreed by the two governments as “an insult” because it did not include payment of reparations ... “No self-respecting African will accept such an insult in this day and age from a so-called civilised European nation.” ... Reuters .
Africans on Tuesday marked their special day with calls to rediscover the continent’s true history and show more commitment to its shared vision for prosperity ...Ghana’s PresidentNana Akufo-Addo said Africans should find “our own unique contribution to the growth of the world civilisation.” ... (The EastAfrican) .
But Herero paramount chief Vekuii Rukoro rejected as insulting a deal agreed by the German and Namibian governments because it did not include payment of reparations ... "No self-respecting African will accept such an insult in this day and age from a so-called civilised European nation." ... a genocide," Mr Maas said ... More on this topic ....
'No self-respecting African will accept such an insult in this day and age from a so-called civilised European nation.' ... The accord announced Friday is the result of more than five years of talks with Namibia on the events of 1904-1908, when Germany was the southern African country's colonial ruler.
The September 11th attacks, ostensibly confirming the "clash of civilisations" narrative bandied about in political circles, made that image indelible ... In the United States, up to 30% of African slaves were Muslims and were forced to convert to Christianity in order to 'civilise’ them.
PresidentNana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo has expressed confidence that in spite of the many challenges confronting African, the continent is capable of unleashing and harnessing the considerable energies and huge potential of her peoples toward making “our own unique contribution to the growth of world civilisation.”.
Folk musician and actor Johnny Flynn speaks to his friend, the nature writer Robert Macfarlane, about lockdown, the natural world and their new album ... ***. Robert Macfarlane ... RM ... There was that settlement in Greece, wasn’t there? There were all these lockdowns and there were a group of African migrants who were forced to stay outside of civilisation.
At times, they suggested that the African societies from which soldiers and auxiliaries had been drawn were not civilised enough to appreciate being given places in cemeteries and headstones through which to remember their dead ... There, under a carpet of litter, lie the bodies of Africans who fought and died in the same campaign ... Reuse this content. .
A little-known yet surprisingly influential player in US-Turkish relations strolled out of a California jail last month with little fanfare ... Until now ... Germans have the Holocaust, SouthAfricans apartheid and so on. Turkey seeks entry into the club of developed, civilised nations, but it remains one of the very few to persist in denial of history ... .
The bodies, which were stored in large NorthAfrican jars, were in what’s called a necropolis – Greek for city of the dead. Due to the many different civilisations that ruled Corsica, experts have been unable to identify exactly when the inhabitants were buried – but artifacts indicate they could be of Roman origin.